Please find below a list of selected publications, grouped by research area:
- User Safety
- Play Performance
- Pitch Infrastructure
- Pitch Maintenance
- Industry Guidance and Publications
Dara M. Twomey, Lauren A. Petrass, Paul Fleming, Kurt Lenehan (2019). Abrasion injuries on artificial turf: A systematic review. JSAMS, Volume 22, Issue 5, pp 550-556. (Online, 2018) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2018.11.005
Gustin, M.; Fleming, P.R.; Allinson, D.; Watson, S. (2018). Modelling Surface Temperatures on 3G Artificial Turf. The Engineering of Sport, 12(2), 279. https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2060283
S. P. Tay, P. R. Fleming, S. Forrester and X. Hu. (2017). Skin friction related behaviour of artificial turf systems. Journal of Sport Science, Vol. 35, Taylor and Francis. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2016.1223330
S. P. Tay, P. R. Fleming, S. Forrester and X. Hu. (2016). Addressing Skin Abrasions on Artificial Turfs with Zwitterionic Polymer Brushes. Royal Society of Chemistry Advances, 6. https://doi.org/10.1039/C5RA26194E
S. P. Tay, Xiao Hu, P. R. Fleming, S. Forrester. (2016). Tribological investigation into achieving skin-friendly artificial turf surfaces. Materials and Design, 89, pp177–182. Elsevier.
Tay S.P., Hu X., Fleming P. R., Forrester S. (2015). Superhydrophilic Polymer Brushes for Addressing Skin Friction on Artificial Turfs, ICMAT15-A-4240.
Hopper L., Wheeler T.J., Webster J.M., Allen N., Roberts J.R., Fleming P.R. (2014). Dancer Perceptions of the Force Reduction of Dance Floors Used by a Professional Touring Ballet Company. Journal of Dance Medicine & Science – Official publication of the International Association for Dance Medicine & Science 09/2014; 18(3). https://doi.org/10.12678/1089-313X.18.3.121
Twomey, Dara M; Petrass, Lauren A; Fleming, Paul R. (2014). Abrasion injuries on artificial turf: A real risk or not? South African Journal of Sports Medicine, [S.l.], 26(3), pp 91-92. ISSN 2078-516X. https://doi.org/10.7196/sajsm.563
Ronkainen, J, Osei-Owusu, P, Webster, J, Harland, A, Roberts, J. (2012). Elite player assessment of playing surfaces for football. Engineering of Sport Conference 2012, pp.837-842. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2012.04.143
Cole, D., Fleming, P., Morrison, K. et al. (2020) Evaluation of the advanced artificial athlete and Hall effect sensors for measuring strain in multi-layer sports surfaces. SN Appl. Sci. 2, 484, Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42452-020-2178-5
Forrester S., Fleming P. R. (2019) Traction forces generated during studded boot–surface interactions on third generation artificial turf: a novel mechanistic perspective, Engineering Reports, Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1002/eng2.12066
Cole, D., Forrester, S. and Fleming, P. (2018) Mechanical characterisation and modelling of elastomeric shockpads. Applied Sciences (Switzerland), 8 (4). https://doi.org/10.3390/app8040501 (Open Access)
Anderson, F. D., Fleming, P. R., Sherratt, P., & Severn, K. (2016). Design and Development of A Novel Natural Turf Shear Stability Tester. International Sports Engineering Association – The Engineering of Sport 11, Procedia Engineering Volume 147, 2016, pp.842–847.
Mehravar M., Fleming P.R., Cole D., Forrester S. (2016). Mechanical characterisation and strain rate sensitivity of rubber shockpad in 3G artificial turf. ACME‐UK 24th Conference on Computational Mechanics, Cardiff, pp6.
‘The Science and Engineering of Sport Surfaces’ (2015), Eds. Dixon S., Fleming P. R., Carre M. J., James I. T., Taylor and Francis, London. Print ISBN: 9780415500920.
Anderson, F., Fleming, P., Sherratt, P., & Severn, K. (2015). Investigating Shear Stability of Rugby Union Natural Turf Pitches. 7th Asia-Pacific Congress on Sports Technology, APCST 2015. Barcelona.
Ferrandino, M., Forrester, S., & Fleming, P. (2015). The player surface interaction of rugby players with 3G artificial turf during rugby specific movements. 7th Asia-Pacific Congress on Sports Technology, APCST 2015. Barcelona.
Webb, C., Forrester, S., & Fleming, P. (2015). The development of a translational traction rig to investigate the mechanisms of traction in 3G turf. 7th Asia-Pacific Congress on Sports Technology, APCST 2015. Barcelona.
Fleming, P., & Forrester, S. (2014). Artificial Turf Research at Loughborough University. In D. James, S. Choppin, T. Allen, J. Wheat, & P. Fleming (Eds.), ENGINEERING OF SPORT 10 Vol. 72 (pp. 925-930). ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2014.06.147
Forrester, S. E. and Tsui, F. (2014). Spatial and temporal analysis of surface hardness across a third-generation artificial turf pitch over a year. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, 228(3), pp.213-220, ISSN: 1754-3371. https://doi.org/10.1177/1754337114523756
Roberts, J, Osei-Owusu, P, Harland, A, Owen, A, Smith, A. (2014). Elite football players’ perceptions of football turf and natural grass surface properties. Procedia Engineering, pp.907-912. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2014.06.150
Wang, X., Fleming, P. R., & Forrester, S. (2014). Advanced Measurement of Sports Surface System Behaviour under Player Loading. In D. James, S. Choppin, T. Allen, J. Wheat, & P. Fleming (Eds.), ENGINEERING OF SPORT 10 Vol. 72 (pp. 865-870). ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2014.06.145
Owen, AJ, Roberts, J, Harland, A, Osei-owusu, P, Smith, A. (2013). The Application of Statistical Modelling to Elite Players’ Perceptions of Football Playing Surfaces. 4th Int. Conf. on Mathematics in Sport, Eds. D. Goosens, F. Speiksma & P. A. Scarf, Leuven, pp.233-243. Available at: http://www.mathsportinternational.com/MathSport2013Proceedings.pdf
Fleming P.R. (2011). Artificial turf systems for sport surfaces: current knowledge and research needs. Proc. IMechE, Part P: J. Sports Engineering and Technology, 225 (2), June, 43-64. ISSN 1754-3371 (Print). https://doi.org/10.1177/1754337111401688 (SNIP 1.15, Scopus citations 21).
Hopper L S, Alderson, J A, Elliott B C, Ackland T R, Fleming P.R. (2011). Dancer perceptions of quantified dance surface mechanical properties. Proc. IMechE, Part P: J. Sports Engineering and Technology, 225 (2), June. ISSN 1754-3371 (Print).
Severn K., Fleming P.R., Clarke J., Carre M.J. (2011). Science of synthetic turf surfaces: investigating traction behaviour. Proc. IMechE, Part P: J. Sports Engineering and Technology, 225(3), 147-158. ISSN 1754-3371 (Print). https://doi.org/10.1177/1754337111408980
Fleming P.R., Young C., Dixon S.J., Carre M J. (2010). Athlete and coach perceptions of technology needs for evaluating running performance. Journal of Sports Engineering, Springer. Volume 13 (1). August, pp 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12283-010-0049-9 (SNIP 1.71, Scopus citations 8).
J A Ronkainen, R F El-Kati, P R Fleming and S E Forrester. (2010). Application of an industrial robot in the sports domain: simulating the ground contact phase of running. Proc. IMechE, Part P: J. Sports Engineering and Technology, 224 (P4), 259-269. ISSN 1754-3371 (Print). https://doi.org/10.1243/17543371JSET59
Gustin, M.; Fleming, P.R.; Allinson, D.; Watson, S. (2018). Modelling Surface Temperatures on 3G Artificial Turf. The Engineering of Sport 12, 2, 279. https://doi.org/10.3390/proceedings2060283
Fleming P.R., Frost M.W. Simpson M., Everett R., Gibbs R.J. (2017). Drainage behaviour of sports pitches – a case study review. International Turfgrass Society Research Journal, Vol. 13 No. 1, pp.649-655. https://doi.org/10.2134/itsrj2016.06.0450
Fleming P., Forrester S., Ferrandino M. (2016). Artificial Turf Field – A New Build Case Study. International Sports Engineering Association – The Engineering of Sport 11, Procedia Engineering Volume 147, 2016, pp.836–841. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2016.06.294
Fleming P.R., Frost M.W., Simpson M. (2015) Drainage Behaviour of Sport Pitches – Findings From A Research Study (Draft), pp24, Loughborough University. Available at: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/22478
Fleming P.R. and Edwards J.P. (2011). LWD Best Practice Guide (Draft), pp23, Loughborough University (first published in 2009). Available at: https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/27577
State Government Victoria Australia. (2010). Artificial Grass for Sport, pp158.
Available at: https://sport.vic.gov.au/publications-and-resources/community-sport-resources/artificial-grass-sport-guide
Fleming P.R., Anderson L., Ansarifar A. (2008). A Summary Research Report ‐Shockpad Layers For Synthetic Sports Surfaces, pp15, Loughborough University. Available at: tbc.
Fleming P.R., Watts C., Forrester S. (2020) A new model of third generation artificial turf degradation, maintenance interventions and benefits. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology. https://doi.org/10.1177/1754337120961602
Sharma P., Fleming P., Forrester S., Gunn J. (2016). Maintenance of Artificial Turf – Putting Research into Practice. International Sports Engineering Association – The Engineering of Sport 11, Procedia Engineering Volume 147, 2016, pp.830–835.
Fleming P.R., Forrester S., McLaren N.J. (2015). Understanding the effects of decompaction maintenance on the infill state and play performance of third-generation artificial grass pitches. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology. https://doi.org/10.1177/1754337114566480
McLaren, N. J., Fleming, P. R., & Forrester, S. (2014). Artificial grass: A longitudinal study on ball roll and free pile height. In D. James, S. Choppin, T. Allen, J. Wheat, & P. Fleming (Eds.), ENGINEERING OF SPORT 10 Vol. 72 (pp. 871-876). Sheffield Hallam Univ, Sheffield, ENGLAND: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2014.06.146
McLaren, N.J., Fleming, P.R. and Forrester, S.E. (2012). Artificial grass: A conceptual model for degradation in performance, 9th International Sports Engineering Conference, Boston, MA , 9-13 July 2012, Elsevier, Procedia Engineering, Volume 34, pp.831-836, ISSN 1877-7058. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng. 2012.04.141
Fleming P.R. (2011). Maintenance best practice and recent research. Proc. IMechE, Part P: J. Sports Engineering and Technology, 2011, 225 (3), 159-170. ISSN 1754-3371 (Print). (SNIP 1.15, Scopus citations 6)
Severn K., Fleming P.R., Dixon N. and James I. (2007). ‘Temporal and Spatial Investigations on Water Based Hockey Fields’, Presented at the International Conference ‘Sport Technology and Research into Sport Surfaces – STARSS’, CD-ROM, Loughborough University, September 2007, editors Fleming PR, Carre MJ, Dixon SJ and James I. (https://sportsurf.lboro.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/KS.pdf)
Industry Guidance and Publications
- UK Sports and Play Construction Association (SAPCA) code of practice for maintenance of synthetic surfaces
- FIFA’s Quality Programme for Football Turf: Turf Maintenance
- Technical Surfaces Ltd., Leicester
Research collaborators, and specialist maintenance company, see website for information on professional services and diagnostics for pitch problems.
- The SAPCA Code of Practice for the Design, Specification and Testing of Bases for Outdoor Synthetic Sport Areas, 2020, available at https://sapca.org.uk/guide/codes-of-practice/
(Extract: This Code of Practice has been prepared to help ensure that the bases for synthetic sports areas are designed and constructed to the standards that the relevant UK sport’s governing bodies, funding agencies, construction contractors and design professionals consider best practice … prepared by SAPCA’s Technical Committee of industry experts … and special thanks must go to Dr Paul Fleming from the Sports Surfaces Research Group at Loughborough University … for specific input in the development of this document.)
- Drainage Behaviour of Sports Pitches
In 2016, Loughborough University’s Sport Surfaces Research Group published the findings of a research study – the first of its kind – which set about better understanding the drainage capabilities of sports pitches. Over three years, experts took measurements at a range of artificial and natural sports pitches, undertook laboratory testing and developed mathematical modelling to predict how pitch systems might be expected to perform hydraulically. The findings support the claims that in some cases, particularly where there is a lack of understanding or evidence on how pitches can attenuate and store water, planning approvals may be demanding unnecessary offline water storage tanks within the design of the pitch drainage. A full copy of the Loughborough University report is available here.
- Shockpad Layers for Synthetic Surfaces
Dr Paul Fleming, Dr Lauren Anderson & Dr Ali Ansarifar. This report shared with SAPCA summarises the research findings from a four year research project and makes recommendations to the sports surfacing industry regarding shockpad layers used in outdoor synthetic sports pitches. Its purpose is improve the quality and consistency of shockpads constructed on-site. Available at: Shockpad layers for synthetic sports surfaces, Loughborough University
- Fleming P.R. and Edwards J.P. (2011) LWD Best Practice Guide (v10) (Draft), pp23, Loughborough University (first published in 2009). https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/2134/27577 (Now part of BS EN 1924:2)